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how to calculate drag force on a car
4th Dec

2020

how to calculate drag force on a car

In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid. Using a free program such as Avidemux (http://fixounet.free.fr/avidemux/) you can play the video back on your computer frame by frame and view the timestamp at desired speeds. If the cross-sectional area is 6 m 2, calculate the drag force. A plot of velocity vs time is shown below. Aerodynamics drag: Drag is the largest and most important aerodynamic force encountered by passenger cars at normal highway speeds. This equation is useful for estimating the wind load on a specific object, but does not meet building code requirements for planning new construction. AP Physics 1. I prefer. Here are some of these sites:http://www.mayfco.com/geo.htmhttp://www.evconvert.com/tools/evcalc/ (This calculator is not accurate)Wikipedia Geo Metro has dimensionsSo I put the correct area in your Excel file and it gave me a Cd of .47 and Crr .010. Work is force x distance, and our GPS logging system gives us distance information, every second in my case.    g is the gravitational acceleration constant which is 9.81 m/s^2 The spreadsheet averages data from all 6 trials to create a single data set representing velocity (V actual) as a function of time. 11 years ago The forces acting on a moving car are thrust and drag as well as the same forces that act on a stationary car.. The force to push a car down the road varies with the speed the car is traveling.     F = iV2 + jV + k where i, j, and k are constants. It will help you to understand a little bit about the forces on the car before you set up the experiment. The drag force is given as: My analysis of your data shows a very nice linear relationship between arc tan (v/K1) and time which supports your original model where force is proportional to v2 and to a constant. The model values for Cd and Crr can thus be adjusted until the model matches the data. Forces and Motion. on Introduction. Why would you want to know Cd and Crr for your vehicle? The force required to overcome air resistance for a normal family car with drag coefficient 0.29 and frontal area 2 m 2 in 90 km/h can be calculated as: F d = 0.29 1/2 (1.2 kg/m 3) ((90 km/h) (1000 m/km) / (3600 s/h)) 2 (2 m 2) = 217.5 N. compare car air resistance with car rolling resistance While it is nice to know the Cd and Crr for your car, the real benefit here is that we can now accurately predict the total drag force on our car for any speed. Drag coefficient, C d = 0.25. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. Are you seriously suggesting we should put the narrowest tires possible on our cars, as small as can bear the car weight and this will have no effect on rolling resistance or braking distance? Your post here and and aero civic are great by the way. When automobile companies design a new vehicle they take into consideration the automobile drag coefficient in addition to the other performance characteristics. This should result in an overestimate of Cd and an underestimate of Crr which seems to be the case (the Cd spec for this vehicle is supposed to be around 0.36)It would be useful to compare the rolling resistance calculated to that measured by inclined plane as you suggested, or by pulling the vehicle at constant speed (a walking pace) with a spring scale on level ground. Therefore, these are the drag coefficent and coefficient of rolling resistance for my car. To reach this value at a linear acceleration, you must accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 2.74 seconds. 6. Measure the speed of the car, disconnect the clutch and measure the time / distance until stand still (or a certain lower velocity). 1 g is the average gravitational acceleration on Earth, the average force, which affects a resting person at sea level. I say again... the size of the footprint makes no difference to the force that can be transmitted without slipping." But there are few places (at least near me) with level ground where one can safely do coast down testing from such high speeds. The drag force is a function of the fluid velocity and density along with the object's reference area and drag coefficient. I wish I had been able to do a test before making the mods, to calibrate things, because I know the "factory" Cd.Oh, and if you take a frontal photograph with a reasonably long (telephoto) lens, with a measuring tape that is readable at the high point of the roof, you can insert it into a CAD program (I used DataCAD) and then trace the outline, for a pretty accurate frontal area. Go back and watch the video. In the first case, each square inch of rubber supports 100lb so each square inch can tolerate a shear force of 0.8*100=80lb before slipping.    Fd = -Cd*A*0.5*rho*V^2 (formula for force due to air resistance or drag) Try doing a search on "measure frontal area" in the forums at gassavers.org or ecomodder.com. We are looking for a better way in calculating the drag.    F = M*a (Newton's second law) The drag force formula is: D = C d × ρ × V 2 × A 2. Drag force can either be seen as a help or a hindrance depending on the automotive application. Make sure that the mass measurement you’re using is in kilograms and the acceleration is in meters over seconds squared. This is an AP Physics C Topic. on Introduction. Introduction Drag force is caused by a fluid (such as water or air; or any liquid or gas) impinging upon an object. Cd and Crr offer a quantitative method of comparing vehicle performance before and after these types of modifications to see if you made any improvement. There are many similarities in the physics of the two kinds of machines. Focus on the applied force to the car. Technically I did not "calculate" Cd and Crr. 1 year ago Approximately 65% (.275/.42) of the drag arises from the body (fore body, after body, underbody and skin friction). I've played with measuring Cd and Crr under different conditions on a number of vehicles and other experimenters have picked apart and tweaked my spreadsheet for their own uses. According to this, even a very small amount of force is sufficient to move a car, albeit slowly. make the rubber flex into all the contours of the surface. Using your VSS data you can calculate "V" and "a" in each case. Simply have your passenger record a video of your speedometer during the coast down tests, or find some way of mounting the camera so you can do the recording without an assistant. For most large objects such as bicyclists, cars, and baseballs not moving too slowly, the magnitude of the drag force F D is found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object. The maximum traction force available from one of the two rear wheels on a rear wheel driven car - with mass 2000 kg equally distributed on all four wheels - on wet asphalt with adhesion coefficient 0.5 - can be calculated as. Drag coefficient is at the bottom of your screen. on rough surfaces: the lower the better. A fluid flow past the surface of the body exerts a force on it. I know this is an old topic but I can't just let this stuff lie. F=1/2*Cd*flow density*freestream velocities^2. Determine the average drag force acting on the vehicle. Aside: If you have a digital camera capable of recording several minutes of low resolution video (as most people seem to have these days), the process is much easier and more accurate. I made the claim that having a dynamic thrust curve would prove to be very valuable when coupled with an understanding of the force opposing thrust: drag. Typically people put the interested rocket prototype in a wind tunnel to find out the drag force and use the drag force equation to calculate the drag coefficient of the rocket model. Knowing the drag force allows us to calculate the work required to overcome the drag force. Density of fluid, ρ =1.2 kg.m-3. Increases fuel economy (all the way to bursting point) Decreases chances of hydro planing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contact_patch This is just simple physics The rest of the factors that are being discussed here have a lot more factors than just tire pressure involved Firstly, Manufacturer tire pressure ratings are based on a multitude of performance factors, many of which have not been discussed here. If the fluid is air this creates a wind force is nothing but typically called the Aerodynamic Forces. The drag coefficient of an automobile measures the way the automobile passes through the surrounding air. If the best hill you have features a subtle curve, try your best to take it smoothly and consistently. The following equation is used to calculate the drag force acting on a moving object through a fluid. 2 5 × 1. Shape. We are also aware that all calculations will be "rough" but if we can broaden our horizons on this subject then it may help. Repeat the test in both directions twice more (6 trials in all, 3 in each direction). Now for some formulas:    F = Fd + Frr (total force is the sum of Fd and Frr) Note also that Fd is increases as the square of velocity. But car tires roll and can't be analysed in this way. It will allow you to calculate the force on your car in a wind tunnel but it won't allow you to accurately calculate the force on your vehicle on the road.If you want to compare the performance of a vehicle before/after making mods, the change in coast down time itself is MUCH more meaningful than any change in Cd or Crr extracted from the coast down data.    Fd is the force on the vehicle due to air resistance (drag) in Newtons Well, suppose you're interested in modifying your vehicle for improved fuel efficiency. The equation is: F D = 1 2 ρ u 2 C D A {\displaystyle F_{D}\,=\,{\tfrac {1}{2}}\,\rho \,u^{2}\,C_{D}\,A} F D {\displaystyle F_{D}} is the drag force, which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity, ρ {\displaystyle \rho } is … This is why driving at high speeds is much less efficient than driving at low speeds. on Introduction. The acceleration force can be calculated as. Thanks for the correction. To calculate wind load using the generic formula, use F = A × P × Cd, where F is the force or wind load, A is the projected area of the object, P is the wind pressure, and Cd is the drag coefficient. For other experiments you can do on your car see my website IWillTry.org. I thought of the same trick years ago and am glad I'm not the only one to ponder such things. 11 years ago Get a temperature gauge and have a look at the first link here if you want to start being scientific. First, let's define some quantities: How To Calculate Drag Introduction In the last post, we discussed dynamic thrust and how thrust from a propeller decreases as forward velocity increases. 0 g is the value at zero gravity.    Cd is the vehicle's drag coefficient we want to determine    M = 1000 kg (about 850kg curb weight plus 150 kg of occupants) Because high speed does reveal drag better, I also considered this test: find a straight smooth road that's rarely traveled. Accurate aerodynamic drag of a car is not easy to calculate even in a fully developed turbulent flow and very difficult in relatively low Re. Calculation of the g-force at accelerating or braking in a straight line motion. How To Calculate Drag Introduction In the last post, we discussed dynamic thrust and how thrust from a propeller decreases as forward velocity increases. Drag coefficient, C d = 0.25. This adjustment can be done manually, by overwriting the values of Cd and Crr with new values till the model matches the data, or it can be done using a "Solver" function. The force required to overcome air resistance for a normal family car with drag coefficient 0.29 and frontal area 2 m2 in 90 km/h can be calculated as: Fd = 0.29 1/2 (1.2 kg/m3) ((90 km/h) (1000 m/km) / (3600 s/h))2 (2 m2) = 217.5 N compare car air resistance with car rolling resistance It will record exact speed and exact time. Units in Drag Force calculator: cm=centimeter, ft=feet, g=gram, hr=hour, kg=kilogram, km=kilometer, lb=pound, m=meter, N=Newton, s=second. on Introduction. If I could figure out this, I think using AppInventor I could actually create the android app which calculates the Cx and Crr I was talking about! Approximately 65% (.275/.42) of the drag arises from the body (fore body, after body, underbody and skin friction). Knowing the drag force allows us to calculate the work required to overcome the drag force. When you’ve solved the equation, the force will be measured in Newtons. Calculating Average Drag Force on an Accelerating Car using an Integral (6:59) Previous Video. Also, though I've not tried it yet, DashCommand.app (works with any ELM327 OBD2) has just added a logger to their app. Check this out: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_resistance Anyone tempted by slick tires? This study compares two methods for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic side force on a high speed train running in a turbulent crosswind at discrete points along a straight track: the method of aerodynamic weighting function, and that of the quasi-steady theory. If the car's velocity is $16\ \mathrm{m/sec}$, the friction force accelerating it backwards is equal (in magnitude) and opposite to the driving force, and hence the car maintains a constant velocity. This frictional force is also known as the drag and it is a force that acts in the direction opposite to the motion of the object. Drag force is a function of shape geometry, velocity of the moving fluid over a stationary shape, and the fluid properties density and viscosity. Let's compare a 1x1 inch square of rubber with 100 lb of weight evenly distributed on it to a 10x10 inch square of rubber with 100 lb of weight evenly distributed on it. Measure the Drag Coefficient of Your Car Step 1: Equipment. The ideal set up is normally to get the maximum amount of downforce, for the smallest amount of drag generated. 4 2.2.2 Lift force Contrasts with the drag force, lift force exerts when a fluid flowing pass through the surface of an object and the direction of lift is perpendicular to the flow velocity direction . Thrust is the force pushing the car forwards. A curve based on that model will much more closely match actual coast down data. You don't need any equipment except the digital camera. Reply 1 g = 9.80665 m/s² = 32.17405 ft/s². The acceleration work can be calculated as. 7. This online force calculator helps you to determine the force of an object given the mass and acceleration values. Like friction, the drag force always opposes the motion of an object. Therefore, drag force also called air resistance or fluid resistance. Both methods are concerned with time series estimation of aerodynamic loading based on experimentally measured crosswind data. However, in practice, if you want to compare performance before and after making modifications to your car, you can get faster results just by measuring the time to decelerate from speed A to speed B. So it seems to me like there is a mistake here. But by the same token, knowing an accurate Cd value isn't particularly useful. It is expressed in newtons (N). What speed should I drive to get maximum fuel efficiency? The interesting cars are more likely to have bogus Cd numbers. Try to establish the baseline with semi boring cars. Lecture Notes. Drag Forces. The Forces on a Moving Car.. What are the Forces on a Moving Car?. Less drag means higher speeds, more drag means lower speeds. But after solving for i, j and k, there is no way to extract meaningful values of Cd and Crr since by definition, they assume i is related only to drag, and j is 0, neither of which is entirely true. Go to a tall hill, release the brakes with aforementioned gps / camera, and note the stopping location/time achieved. I guessed some initial values. F one_wheel = 0.5 ((2000 kg) (9.81 m/s 2) / 4) = 2453 N The traction force from both rear wheels When automobile companies design a new vehicle they take into consideration the automobile drag coefficient in addition to the other performance characteristics. Cross-sectional area, A= 6 m 2. Multiplying this by the number of square inches (1) gives a maximum total shear force of 80lb. ×ρ×V 2×A. It is expressed in newtons (N). on Introduction. Drive to a flat road with little traffic or wind. The model assumes that the drag force is related only to V2 and that the force of rolling and drivetrain resistance is constant. Share it with us! My experience is that there IS a mistake in one of the underlying assumptions of the model: namely that the force of rolling resistance is constant independent of V. Vehicles are designed with negative lift (so they get pushed into the road more at higher speeds, improving handling) so the force of rolling resistance also has a component that varies with V2 like the drag force. Myself, I'd like to eliminate human error, even without high speed. Although most wind turbines and windmills - new and old - are based on the lift principle rather than drag, it is worthwhile to explore the physics of drag-based wind machines. Multiplying this by the number of square inches (100) gives a maximum total shear force of 80lb. The drag force of a passenger car consists of about 80% of pressure drag, 10% of drag caused by internal flow through an engine compartment and 10% of drag caused by roughness beneath a floor. on Introduction, Wow, Wow, just wow! Work is force x distance, and our GPS logging system gives us distance information, every second in my case. A body with mass 20 kilograms and acceleration 5 m/s 2 will have a force Mass = 20 kgs Acceleration =5 m/s 2 = 20 x 5 = 100 Newtons . This opposition of atmosphere to the forward motion of the object is also known as aerodynamic drag and this results in decreasing the speed of the body. Imagine you drove your car through a snow bank. In the second case each square inch only supports 1lb, so each square inch can tolerate a shear force of 0.8*1=0.8lb before slipping. The spreadsheet I created to analyze the results. Pick medium to low speeds if your modifications are likely to affect rolling resistance. It's easy to determine the component of the vehicle weight projected onto the ramp which would propel the vehicle forward. The force exerted on the driver is known as G force. Don't forget to take multiple measurements in each direction and average the results. Let off the gas. Make sure that the mass measurement you’re using is in kilograms and the acceleration is in meters over seconds squared. Now, simply plug the values you know into the equation and solve. Secondly, measurement of drag force takes into account the value of area and free stream velocities. Give. It is based on the averages from my 6 trials. We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. A car travels with a speed of 80 km.h-1 with a drag coefficient of 0.25. 2. how u calculate Cd & Crr .please give explanation. If the car is on flat ground and friction is negligible (which is true if it has inflated tires and is moving slowly), then the force required to accelerate the car is given by force = mass times acceleration or F=M x a. I'd do this with a super sleek rental car, and a blunt one. Are any of the variables constants like g = 32.2 ft/s^2 (or 9.81 m/s^2)? When the driver releases the pedal, the same friction force accelerates the car backwards, but now there is no driving force, so the car drifts slowly to a halt. Increased tire Pressure: Reduces Rolling Resistance (Duh!) F = (1000 kg) (5 m/s 2) = 5000 N = 5 kN. Keep in mind that Flow Simulation utilize algebraic wall function which is quite universally applicable to small and large Y+ values on which the drag depends very strongly. on Step 4. Different sidewall thickness? The reality is that the force of rolling and drivetrain resistance is also related to V2 and V.So a better model of the force on a moving vehicle would be:F = iV2 + jV + k where i, j, and k are constants. It follows an equation of the following form: road load force = a + bv + cv2. Use tooltips for more info. To reach this value at a linear acceleration, you must accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 2.74 seconds. Depending on the exact requirement for the application, the set up can be modified to suit top speed (lower drag levels) or high down force (higher drag levels), while providing more grip for the corners by pushing down on the tyres/ tires. There's no simple answer for 'square' car tires and the sheet of paper with paint tactics mentioned here have a massive margin of error. Weird tread patterns? Density of fluid, ρ =1.2 kg.m-3. Calculate drag factor. Different gases for inflation?Braking and cornering http://www.turnfast.com/tech_handling/handling_pressure Mainly a function of 'contact patch' of tire. no one tire pressure is optimal regardless of what's printed on your car. Record data as follows. I created a spreadsheet based on these formulas to generate a model of velocity vs time that can be compared to actual data. Hard compounds? This functionality is complicated and depends upon the shape of the object, its size, its velocity, and the fluid it is in. 0 g is the value at zero gravity. The frontal area is the cross-sectional swept area of the car. The drag force is a function of the fluid velocity and density along with the object's area and drag coefficient. Everything else is known except Cd and Crr. If you really want an accurate Cd value you need to eliminate rolling resistance and viscous forces from the test (think wind tunnel). Calculation of the g-force at accelerating or braking in a straight line motion. To calculate force, use the formula force equals mass times acceleration, or F = m × a. You will have two equations (one for 60MPH and one for 30MPH) and two unknowns (Cd and Crr). Definitely the results will be more accurate coasting down from higher speeds, for exactly the reasons you say. Drag & lift coefficients For each category, select the most appropriate choice for your vehicle. I am wondering whether there is a mathematical formula that we can use to calculate the drag force without empirical measurements. 2 2 2 × 6 2. To match the entire curve you would have to write your own "solver" equivalent (ie a recursive function to keep tweaking Cd and Crr values until the error between the model and the actual data is as low as possible).But you can get pretty good results without matching the whole curve. Maybe you should look at my modification of your spreadsheet. It is caused by the collision of the air molecules with the surface of the object. Drag force depends on flow velocity and it decreases the fluid velocity . F = m a (3) where . Figure 2 shows comparison of pressure distribution on the plane of symmetry. I wonder if you may have better results measuring the drag due to air resistance if you started your coastdowns at a much higher speed, since at high speeds, most of the total drag is from the air. D=\frac {C_ {d}\times\rho \times V^ {2}\times A} {2} D = 2C d. . How to Calculate the G Forces in NHRA Drag Racing In the sport of professional drag racing gravity takes on an entirely different meaning while accelerating these monsters down the track at speeds in excess of 330 miles per hour. Second one is road surface. 12 years ago You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website. How many seconds did it take to coast down from say 80 to 40. Acceleration Work. Use basic algebra to solve for Cd and Crr in terms of known values. Have the driver accelerate up to above 70 km/h or so, and shift into neutral. If you establish a baseline 12 years ago, and take a project car to the same hill, be on the lookout for different quality of pavement.